Technical Documents Library

Articles & Presentations

The Graham Technical Library contains articles developed by Graham Corporation for publication in various magazines and technical seminar presentations. The articles are organized in three categories; heat transfer, vacuum equipment, and steam surface condensers.

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Found 41 Results
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Understanding Ejector Systems Necessary to Troubleshoot Vacuum Distillation

A complete understanding of ejector system performance characteristics can reduce the time and expense associated with troubleshooting poor crude vacuum distillation unit (CVDU) performance. Variables that may negatively impact the ejector-system performance of vacuum-crude distillation units include utilities supply, corrosion and erosion, fouling, and process conditions.

Author: Lines, Jim

918.02 KB

Specifying Steam Surface Condensers

Sizing of steam surface condensers based on turbine steam flow which includes steam inlet velocity, cooling water flow and pressure drop, air leakage for design, fouling factors to use, ASME, HEI, and TEMA design codes, gas removal system design and space limitations for the condenser size.

Author: Spencer, Elliot

82.47 KB

Set Refinery Profitability Goals

Great strides have been made in improving plant efficiency and productivity by implementing online, interactive computer controls. But has this improved profitability or cash flow? How can the first-line management level know that its cash flow or ROI has been improved?

Author: Johnson, Eric and Johnson, Alicia

859.12 KB

Proper Piping for Vacuum Systems

How to determine pressure drop, condensate leg height and other piping considerations for proper vacuum system design and operation

Author: Wetzel, Loren E.

87.04 KB

Mechanical Seal Coolers a Basic Accessory Gets a Facelift

A seal cooler directly affects performance of a mechanical seal and extends its mean time between failures (MTBF). The heat removal and thermosiphoning capabilities of the cooler, its hydraulic characteristicstics, as well as its ability to remove trapped air (ventability) influence mechanical seal performance. API Standard 682, Shaft Sealing Systems for Centrifugal and Rotary Pumps.

Author: Lines, Jim

141.49 KB

Lessons from the Field – Ejector Systems

Real world ejector system performance limitations uncovered during routine performance surveys. Corrective action undertaken to improve performance is documented and discussed in detail. Principles from the initial article are used as the tools to define the cause of a particular limitation and the eventual solution.

Author: Lines, Jim

128.02 KB

Key design considerations for vacuum process condensers

Crude oil refining and petrochemical industries make extensive use of condensers that operate under vacuum. Distillation is the most common process using these condensers, either as a process precondenser ahead of an ejector system, or as an intercondenser within an ejector system.

Author: Lines, Jim

2.27 MB

How to Keep VOCs in Check with Vent Condensers

Environmental stewardship is becoming a priority for chemical plants as investors, corporate boards, government agencies and the public are demanding more accountability. For chemical processing plants, the release of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from storage tanks is an area that often gets overlooked but is equally important to other sustainability targets, such as production processes, when it comes to meeting environmental, social and governance goals.

Author: Lines, Jim

302.32 KB

How to Improve Ejector System Performance

Ejector systems are widely used throughout the fats & oils processing industry for important processes, such as, solvent extraction, degumming, bleaching, deodorization, renewable diesel pretreatment or hydro-processing – wiped film evaporator and glycerin still are most common. Ejector systems provide reliable operation and pressure level for these critical fats & oil processing operations; however, there are instances where performance shortcomings arise. The root cause may not always be straightforward to troubleshoot. This article describes four case studies in performance problem solving taken from a variety of documents produced by ejector system experts.

Author: Lines, Jim

1.69 MB

How Low Can You Go?

Design Factors Operating Heat Exchangers at Ultra Low Temps
Ultra low, cryogenic, temperature applications for heat exchanger design for use in pharmaceutical and specialty chemical applications.

Author: Lines, Jim

308.99 KB

Heat Exchangers in Municipal Wastewater Treatment Plants

Plate heat exchangers may be selected for their high thermal efficiency and minimum capital investment. Spiral heat exchangers, on the other hand, are turned to for their ability to effectively handle fluids containing solids and fibers, similar to those encountered in wastewater treatment plants.

Author: Lines, Jim

20.20 KB

Full Steam Ahead

Variables Affect Cost, Performance and Reliability – Steam Surface Condensers
Steam Surface Condensers are critical equipment in a fertilizer plant, and can directly impact plant throughput and product quality. This article reviews key design decisions that affect capital cost and outlines operating variables that can negatively impact performance reliability.

Author: Johnson, Alicia

3.10 MB

Fouling in VDU Ejector Systems

Ejector system fouling can cost refiners millions of dollars annually. It leads to lost yield or lower throughput, either of which affects a refiner’s bottom line.

Author: Lines, Jim

892.64 KB

Ejectors Eject Energy Hogs

Turbine Operating Costs Depend on Condenser Performance
Saving energy and reducing a plant’s carbon footprint is vitally important in today’s world. One of a plant’s greatest energy users can be its steam-driven turbines. Steam turbines have excellent reliability and durability and are used to drive pumps, compressors, generators, and other rotating mechanical equipment throughout the refining, chemical, and petrochemical industries for processes that produce petroleum products, chemicals, fertilizers, electric power, and other products that are used every day by people around the world.

Author: Kubik, Bill

6.99 MB

Ejector Systems for Fats, Oils, Oleochemicals

Essential processes in the production of natural fats and oils and derivative oleochemicals are performed under vacuum, i.e., at a pressure below atmospheric. Such processes, including solvent extraction, degumming, bleaching, interesterification, fractionation, winterization and deodorization, are supported by ejector systems.

Author: Lines, Jim

786.49 KB

Coping With Vacuum

The Importance of Ejector Systems in Urea Plants
Ejector systems are critical to the final concentration of a urea solution.

Author: Lines, Jim

1.25 MB

Convective Flow Boiling in Coiled Tubes

Graham Manufacturing makes coiled-tube heat transfer equipment (Heliflow heat exchangers) which is frequently utilized as cryogenic vaporizers, with 80% of this service dedicated to liquid nitrogen. As a result of this testing, an analytical formulation for predicting boiling heat transfer rates in coiled-tube heat exchangers has been developed.

Author: Athey, Roderick and Saupe, Larry

77.53 KB

Condensers vs. Heat Exchangers

Alicia Johnson, Graham Corporation, highlights the strengths and weaknesses of traditional straight tube designs vs coiled tube designs in both condensers and heat exchangers.

Author: Johnson, Alicia

10.41 MB

Condensers Control and Reclaim VOCs

Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990, which state acceptable rates for VOC emissions. Condensation technology allows reclamation of VOCs, providing an economic incentive when costly product is reclaimed as a condensate.

Author: Lines, Jim and Smith, Alan

347.09 KB

Condenser Operations Effect on Plant Utility Costs

Fertilizer plants commonly use steam turbines to drive process air compressors, synthesis gas compressors, refrigerant compressors, electric generators and other mechanical devices. The cost of producing steam to operate the plant’s turbines is significant. Any adjustments in operation that can improve turbine performance will lead to reduced energy consumption and cost. Unfortunately, the equipment that is used to support the turbine is often overlooked. This article will explore the important relationship between operation of the steam surface condenser and its venting ejectors, and how their performance directly affects the fuel costs associated with operating a steam turbine.

Author: Kubik, Bill

9.65 MB

Choose the Right Vacuum Pump

Different types of vacuum pumps, piston, vane, dry, lobe, liquid ring, ejector, condenser, are discussed and the advantages and disadvantages of each type is provided.

Author: Aliasso, Joe

268.66 KB